CIPR | Center For Inter-American Policy & Research

Tulane University

Human Development

Human Development

Despite recent improvements, Latin America continues to be noted for its high levels of poverty and inequality as well as its protracted dependence on primary exports. The balancing of economic development and social policies has been a constant theme in the region, yet it has been accomplished haltingly, and to varied degrees across countries. The vaunted promises of economic liberalization in the 1990s stoked the expectations of the masses, mobilized politically in the advent of concurrent democratization processes. But the reform process, incomplete as it was, failed to deliver on those promises. The result was a general repudiation of liberalizing reforms and a dangerous disenchantment with the institutions of representative democracy. Most countries then shifted towards a greater preoccupation with strong institutions and active state participation in social policy. This participation took different forms, ranging from conditional transfer programs targeted to the most vulnerable social sectors, to far-ranging proposals for twenty-first century socialism. Together with strong economic growth most of these programs brought significant reductions in poverty and broadened the ranks of an emergent middle class. Inequality also registered progress, though not universally. Questions remain, however, regarding the sustainability of these gains. Strong demand for commodities, mainly from China, has lessened incentives to seek diversification of productive structures. If the current uncertainty affecting global growth lowers this demand, the consequences to economic growth in the region could be adverse. While macroeconomic prudence is well established in most countries (with Venezuela and Argentina as possible exceptions) and debt burdens are generally low, currency flows are resulting in the appreciation of exchange rates which are hurting export competitiveness. Slow productivity growth in most countries also limits growth. Coupled with meager tax revenues, this restricts the capabilities of states to invest in the human and physical capital necessary to foster equitable and sustainable development in the long-term.

Key general research questions in this area include the following:

  • What, if any, will be the dominant paradigm guiding economic reform?
  • How can the region overcome the obstacles to governability posed by the new inclusiveness of its political systems?
  • How can states foster greater human security without democratic reversions?
  • How do the efforts of states compare in the fight against poverty and inequality? Are there standards of measurement?
  • How can states prioritize their use of resources to maximize human wellbeing?
  • How can state capacities be bolstered to deliver the requisites of strong and sustainable increases in human development?
  • What can states do to foster innovation, productivity, and overall competitiveness?
  • How can states move their productive structures away from natural resource dependence?

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CIPR Fall Speaker Series

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Please join us Mondays at noon for our Fall speaker Series
Markets, the State, and Democracy in Latin America
October 14, October 21, November 11, and November 18.

In the 2019 fall series, Markets, the State, and Democracy in Latin America, speakers will discuss emerging issues that have surfaced as the result of the opportunities and challenges to democratic governance that markets have brought to the region. Latin America experienced a major influx of investment, particularly in the resource sector, over the past several decades. While this foreign investment helped hasten economic development, it also brought a backlash of resource nationalism and increased calls for redistribution. Moreover, Latin America is now a model in its own right, with other countries in the Global South adopting its state-sponsored development strategies in the resource sector. These presentations will also explore how Latin America is navigating a sea change in geopolitics, with China emerging as a challenger to the United States as the region’s main trade partner and ally.

For more information, check out our Fall Series Poster

Latin American Writers Series: Alberto Barrera Tyszka

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Ecuadorian writer and Tulane Visiting Scholar Gabriela Alemán interviews Venezuelan writer Alberto Barrera Tyszka about his life, interests, and influences. Their discussion will be followed by an open Q&A and an informal reception. This event will be held in Spanish.

About the Latin American Writers Series

This series brings together Latin America’s most representative creative voices and the editorial entrepreneurs that publish them. By way of interviews conducted by renowned Ecuadorian writer Gabriela Alemán and presentations of various editorial missions, the guests will shed light on a literary world shaped by the contemporary issues of the continent. Moving forward, their conversations will comprise the centerpiece of a digital archive that introduces their ideas to a global audience.

Este serie reúne a los autores más representativos de la escritura continental y los editores que los publican. A través de entrevistas con la reconocida escritora ecuatoriana Gabriela Alemán y presentaciones de proyectos editoriales, los invitados explorarán los vínculos entre el mundo literario y la realidad continental. Sus conversaciones se convertirán después en el eje de un archivo digital que busca llevar estas ideas a un público global.

About the Author

Born in Caracas, Alberto Barrera Tyszka has published over a dozen works of poetry, short story, chronicle, novel, and biography. His most recent publications include the novels Patria o Muerte (2015) and Rating (2011), the poetic anthology La inquietud (2013), the collection of chronicles Un país a la semana (2013), and the short story collection Crímenes (2009). In 2005, he collaborated with Cristina Marcano to write the definitive biography of Hugo Chávez, Hugo Chávez sin uniforme: una historia personal (2005). Patria o muerte won the 2015 Premio Tusquets de Novela, and his novel La enfermedad, translated into English as The Sickness (2010), received the 2006 Herralde Award. Barrera also writes for television and has scripted soap operas for Venezuelan, Mexican, Colombian, and Argentinian networks.